How to repair a pumping station, water supply faults at home
Malfunctions of pumping units for the home are typical, studied and almost all can be eliminated by hand.
Common water supply breakdowns at home - the pump does not turn off, turns on too often, does not turn on at all, does not rotate, water spits with air, there is no pressure, no filling. Let's deal with the most frequent breakdowns of pumping stations, how to repair yourself.
The basis of the pumping station is to maintain the operating pressure
The pumping station includes an engine with a pump, a hydraulic accumulator, a control (pressure) relay, filters, a check valve, and a pressure gauge.
The pump is switched on by the control unit when the pressure in the system drops to the lower limit. The accumulator is pumped with water until the maximum pressure is reached, after which the pump is turned off.
The operating water pressure in the system is set in the control unit by adjusting the spring compression. Factory settings are often as follows - turning on the engine - 1.4 atm, turning off - 2.8 atm.
The hydraulic accumulator maintains the pressure in the system at a water flow rate without starting the engine, using the energy of compressed air. This tank (membrane tank) also stores a small supply of water (up to half of the declared volume) in case of a power outage.
Consider what kind of breakdowns can be in this simplicity.
Water does not flow
Even in such a seemingly simple incident as there is no water supply from the pumping station, you can find many breakdowns. In addition to the banal “no electricity”, “the cable was gnawed by the mice”, “the pressure switch has completely broken down”, “the engine burned out”, you can single out something typical that is not difficult to eliminate.
Why there is no water:
- The engine can turn on, but not rotate, - low voltage, for the same reason the control unit does not work - voltage stabilization is needed.
- Also, if the engine “hums”, the pump is out of order, jammed, bearings are scattered. Or, after a long downtime, salt deposition has occurred, you need to manually turn the rotor.
- The voltage is normal, but the control unit does not work - check the clamp of all contacts, the break in the cable at the connection point, both on the engine and in the unit. Check cables for continuity.
- The pump rotates, but there is no water - there is no water in the well, check the level. The coarse or fine filter is clogged. Pipeline rupture.
The pump runs too often
- The accumulator is not pumped up - there is simply no air in it to create a sufficiently voluminous elastic air cushion. It is necessary to pump the accumulator 0.2 atm more than the lower limit of the relay operation, then the internal volume of the tank will be used to the maximum.
- The membrane of the accumulator is torn, - in addition to leapfrog with switches, air appears in the water, the crane will start "snorting and spitting".
- There is a water leak - rather through the check valve back into the well, there may also be a pipeline rupture, or the taps are not closed, including for draining into the sewer.
- The pressure in the relay is not set correctly, or the relay is faulty…. The greater the difference between the upper and lower limits, the less often the pump is turned on, the more water in the accumulator.
The pump can also be switched on relatively often because a too small accumulator has been purchased. You can eliminate by connecting another one in parallel to it.
The pump does not turn off
- More often the pump does not turn off because it cannot reach the upper pressure limit. And the reasons are very diverse.
- The pressure is set too high for a low-power pump at long distances and depths and thin lines - the pump is not able to gain pressure, we change equipment or set it less ...
- The impeller of the pump is out of order - “stopped pressing”.
- Low voltage in the network - there is not enough power (does not develop speed).
- Water leakage from the system - taps are open, pipeline rupture.
- Suction line clogged - filter, check valve.
- Breakdown of the pressure switch (pump control unit) - the pump is not controlled.
- Incorrect selection of the pump - perhaps the suction height is insufficient - the pump cannot raise water, perhaps the pressure is too little - the taps are too far (high) from the pumping station. Perhaps the pipes were simply laid too thin, so the dynamic resistance became too high and exceeds the head.
- Place the diaphragm tank (hydraulic accumulator) at the level of the water consumers, approx. It determines the pressure in the network located at its altitude. If the well is far in the lowland, then the pumping unit can be installed next to it, but the accumulator is in the house ..
- When checking the system, lower the suction into a nearby bucket of water - if the system works, then look for the reason in the suction pipe - water level, valve, clogged, too far (deep water), small section pipe ...
- After reaching the maximum pressure and turning off the pump, look at the pressure gauge - the pressure drops, and the taps are closed - this means damage to the lines.
- Open the pressure switch housing periodically, clean the springs, passages, tighten the contacts - the main unit in the pumping unit must work correctly.
- If the pump captures silt at a low water level in the well, lower a large bucket with a load to the bottom, and suction into it - now only clean water will be taken.